Deploying Scalable Websites with Memcached

October 3, 2008

THIS BLOG HAS MOVED TO http://brian.moonspot.net/

I spoke at the MySQL Conference and Expo this year about the architecture we have here at dealnews.com.  After my talk, Jimmy Guerrero of Sun/MySQL invited me to give a webinar on how dealnews uses memcached.  That is taking place next week, Thursday, October 09, 2008.  It is a free webinar.  We have used memcached in a variety of ways as we have grown. So, I will be talking about how dealnews used memcached in the past and present.

For more information, visit the MySQL web site.


Where Drizzle fits in for me

July 24, 2008

So, most of you have heard about Drizzle by now.  For those that have not, you can check out many, many blog posts or the Launchpad page.

The thread on Slashdot about Drizzle was quite negative.  Most misunderstand what Drizzle is about.  SQLite is not a good solution when you have 100 web servers.  Let me describe how it I would use it and maybe that will help some understand it.

When it comes to MySQL use, dealnews has two very different use cases.  The first is an enterprise storage system that involves content creation, reporting and data warehousing.  For that layer of our business, we are using more and more advanced features as they become available.  We use triggers and stored procedures.  We use complex data types for specific use cases.  All those features are a big gain.

The other way that we use MySQL is for serving content to our readers.  I have written about this before.  For this purpose, we avoid joins, don’t use any advanced features.  We do use replication, indexes and intelligent queries.  We don’t (as one slashdot reader claimed) do all of our processing in the code.  That would be stupid.  If you do that you are ignorant.  I will stop talking about that before this becomes a rant.  I do believe in letting MySQL do my work for me.

This is where Drizzle fits in.  To serve content, I don’t need stored procedures, triggers, views or any of that other stuff.  The whole database that the front end web servers use is basically a view.  It is a denormalized, prepared version of the real data.  I store objects. But, I have to be able to sort and filter the data in a way that SQL allows me to do.  CouchDB sounds interesting.  Maybe one day it will be there.  It is sill in the optimization phase.

Now, some say that this is just MySQL 3.x all over again.  Well, you clearly have not been listening to the really smart people that are working on Drizzle.  They are doing more than just removing the 4.1 and 5.x features from MySQL.  They are removing things that don’t make sense for this use case.  They are adding things that do make sense.  They are replacing parts of the code base where there is a better library or way of doing it.  At this point, they have no feature requirements to meet.  They have no deadlines.  They are making what they think the high volume web world and/or cloud computing needs.  They are making it plugable:  think Apache modules or PHP extensions.  So, if you need feature XYZ that was yanked out, you can add it back in (hopefully) via the internal API.  There is a lot more going on here than just removing “features”.

So, I am cheering on the folks working on Drizzle.  I have joined their community and will provide what feedback I can from userland.  I am no C++ coder.  I can read it.  I can debug it.  But, writing it or doing heavy lifting is not in my skill set.  Hopefully I can contribute


Caching and TTL behavior

July 3, 2008

So, I am working on MemProxy some.  Mainly, I am trying to implement more of the Cache-Control header’s many options.  The one that has me a bit perplexed s-maxage.  Particularly when combined with max-age.

s-maxage is the maximum time in seconds an item should remain in a shared cache.  So, if s-maxage is set by the application server, my proxy should keep it for that amount of time at the most.  Up until now, I have just been looking at max-age.  But, s-maxage is the proper one for a proxy to use if it is present.  I do not send the s-maxage through because this is a reverse proxy and, IMO, that is proper behavior for an application accelerating proxy.  However, I do send forward the max-age value that is set by the application servers.  If no max-age is set, I send a default as defined in the script.  Also, if no-cache or no-store is set, I send those and a max-age of 0.

My problem arises when max-age is less than s-maxage.  Up until now, I have sent a max-age back to the client that represents the time left for the cached item in my proxy’s cache.  So, if the app server sent back max-age=300 and a request comes in and the cache is found and the cache was created 100 seconds ago, I send max-age-200 back to the client.  But, I was only using max-age before.  Now, in cases where s-maxage is longer than max-age, I would come up with negative numbers.  That is not cool.  The easiest solution would be to always send the original max-age back to the client.  But, that seems kind of lame.

So, my question is, if you are using an application (HTTP or otherwise) accelerator, what would you expect?  If you application set a max-age of 300 would you always expect the end client to receive a max-age of 300?  Or should it count down over time?  The only experience I have is a CDN.  If you watch CDN traffic, the max-age gets smaller and smaller over time until it hits 0.  I have not tried sending an s-maxage to my CDN.  I don’t know what they would do with that.  Maybe that is a good test.

UPDATE: Writing this gave me an idea.  If the item will be in the proxy cache longer than the max-age ttl, send the full max-age ttl.  Otherwise, send the time left in the proxy cache.  Thoughts on that?

(thanks for being my teddy bear blogosphere)


Velocity Conference Roundup

July 1, 2008

As I said before, I was invited to be on a panel at Velocity Conference.  I was delighted to go.  I had never been to San Francisco.  I have been to Portland and Santa Clara several times.  The panel was great.  It was the Brian and photo sharing sites show.  Seriously, it was me (dealnews.com), John Allspaw of Flickr, Don MacAskill of SmugMug and Farhan Mashraqi of Fotolog.  Oh, there was also Shayan Zadeh of Zoosk, a social dating network and Michael Halligan, a consultant from BitPusher.  We all had similar ideas.  I told my Yahoo story.  I told everyone that they should denormalize (or optimize as Farhan prefered) their data to improve performance.  Others agreed.  I have written about my methods for denormalizing normalized data before.  (See pushed cache)  Fun was had by all.

I mentioned John Allspaw above.  He gave a talk on his own as well.  It was good.  The slides are on SlideShare.  He and I see eye to eye on a lot of things.  One thing he says in there that may shock a lot of people is to test using produciton.  I agree fully.  We could have never been sure our infastructure was ready last year without testing the production servers.

I also learned about Varnish at the conference. It is a super fast reverse proxy.  It uses the virtual memory systems of recent kernels to store its cache.  The OS worries about moving things from memory to disk based on usage.  The claim is that the OSes are better at this than any programmer could do (without copying them of course).  It is fast.  The developers are proud.  And by proud I mean cocky.  I have been playing with it.  As you know, I have my own little caching proxy solution.  Varnish is much faster, as I expected.  However, storing cache in memcached is very attractive to me.  Varnish can’t do that.  It would likely slow it down a great deal.  MemProxy does do that.  Also, because MemProxy is written in PHP and my application layer is PHP, I can do things at the proxy layer to inspect the request and take action.  Works well for my use.  But, if you are using squid or mod_cache or something, you may want to give Varnish a look.

There was a good bit of information about the client side of performance.  There were folks from Microsoft there talking about IE8.  It looks like IE8 will catch up with the other browsers in a lot of ways.  Yahoo talked about image optimization.  Good stuff in there.  I use Fireworks and it does a pretty good job of making small images.  I am looking more into combining images and making image maps that use CSS.  We use a CDN, but fewer connections is better for users.

There was also a lot of great debate.  SANs rock!  SANs suck!  Rails Scales!  Rails Sucks!  The Cloud is awesome!  The Cloud is a lie!  (lots of cloud)

I had dinner both nights with guys from Six Apart.  Good conversations were had.  I don’t know if I am a big vegan fan though.  I mean, the food was good, but it all kinda tasted the same.  Perhaps I ordered poorly.  At dinner on Tuesday I met a guy going to work for Twitter soon.  He is an engineer that hopefully will be another step toward getting them back to 100% again.  Lets keep our fingers crossed.

They did announce that the conference would be held again next year.  I am definitely going back.  Probably two of us from dealnews will go.  OSCON is fun.  MySQL conference is too.  But, more and more, capacity planning and scaling is what I do.  And this conference is all about those topics.


Did you know I am going to be at Velocity?

June 18, 2008

Well, neither did I until today. HA!

Velocity is a new O’Reilly conference dedicated to “Optimizing Web Performance and Scalability”.  It starts next Monday.  Yesterday I was contacted by Adam Jacobs of HJK Solutions about taking part in a panel discussion about what happens when success comes suddenly to a web site.  I think he thought I was in the bay area.  Little did he know I am in Alabama.  But, amazingly, I was able to work it all out so I can be there.  I wish I had known about this conference ahead of time.  It sounds really awesome.  Performance has always been something I focus on.  I hope to share some and learn at the same time.

So, if you are going to be there, come see our panel.

P.S. Thanks to John Allspaw of Flickr for recommending me to Adam.


MemProxy 0.1

June 11, 2008

MemProxy 0.1 is out!  It has taken me a while, but I have finally gotten around to releasing the code that I credited with saving us during a Yahoo! mention.  It is a caching proxy “server” that uses memcached for storing the cache.  I put server in quotes because it is really just a PHP script that handles the caching and talking to the application servers.  Apache and other HTTP servers already do a good job talking HTTP to a vast myriad of clients.  I did not see any reason to reinvent the wheel.  Here are some of the features that make it different from anything I could find:

  • Uses memcached for storage
  • Serves cache headers to clients based on TTL of cached data
  • Uses custom headers to assemble multiple pieces of cache into one object
  • Minimal dependencies.  Only PHP and pecl/memcached needed.
  • Small code base.  It is just two files, one when settings are cached.
  • Application agnostic.  If the backend is hosted on an HTTP server this can cache it.

Some other things it does that you might expect:

  • Handles HTTP 1.1 requests to the backend
  • Allows TTLs set by the standard Cache-Control header
  • Appears transparent to the client.
  • Sends proper HTTP error codes relating to proxies/gateways
  • Allows pages to be refreshed or removed from cache
  • Allows a page to be viewed from the application server without caching it
  • more….

You can find the code on Google Code.  The code (or something like it rather) has been in use at dealnews for well over a year.  But, this is a new code base.  It had to be refactored for public consumption.  So, there may be bugs.


Stupid PHP Tricks: Normalizing SimpleXML Data

June 3, 2008

SimpleXML is neat.  Some people don’t think it is so simple.  Boy, use the old stuff.  The DOM-XML stuff.

Anyhow, one annoying thing about SimpleXML has to do with caching.  When using web services, we often cache the contents we get back.  We were having a problem where we would get an error about a SimpleXML node not existing.  We were caching the data in memcached which serializes the variable.  So, when it unserialized the variable, there were references in there to some SimpleXML nodes that we did not take care of.  Basically, a tag like:

<foo>bar</foo>

is a string.  But a tag like:

<foo></foo>

is an empty SimpleXML Object.  That is a little annoying, but I don’t feel like digging into the C code and figuring out why.  So, we just work around it.  We made a recursive function to do the dirty work for us.

function makeArray($obj) {
$arr = (array)$obj;
if(empty($arr)){
$arr = "";
} else {
foreach($arr as $key=>$value){
if(!is_scalar($value)){
$arr[$key] = makeArray($value);
}
}
}
return $arr;
}

That will turn whatever you pass it into an array or empty string if it is empty.

But, while I was hacking around tonight, I came up with another idea.  Check out this hackery:

$data = json_decode(json_encode($data));

Yeah!  One liner.  That converts all the SimpleXML elements into stdClass objects.  All other vars are left intact.

Ok, so this is where someone in the comments can tell me about the magic SimpleXML method or magic OOP function I have missed to take care of all this.  Go ahead, please make my code faster.  I dare you.